*LANGUAGE – English
*ABSTRACT – 150-200 words
*KEYWORDS – 5-7
*ARTICLE LENGTH – 3000-6500 words (including footnotes and Works Cited)
*FONT – Calibri; Size -11; single spaced
*QUOTATIONS – more than 4 lines – 10, single spaced (indented – no commas)
*CITATION STYLE – (see MLA table below)
* SHORT BIO (narrative CV) – ~100 words
*we will also include a section Miscellanea, which may feature a limited number of papers not related to the theme.
*BOOK REVIEWS – of recently published titles (no earlier than three years) (~1500 words)
MLA 2011 (7th edition) – based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, 2009 [revised, July 2011 by Durham College]
|Type of entry||In-text citation||Works Cited|
|Book||Author + page nr||Title of Book. City: Publisher, year. Medium.|
(no author or unknown author)
|(Title + page nr)
(Encyclopedia of Virginia 214)
|Title of Book. City: Publisher, year. Medium.
Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993. Print.
|(Author last name + page nr)
|Author last name, first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, year. Medium.
Barnet, Sylvan. The Practical Guide to Writing. Toronto: Longman,
(two or three authors)
|(Author 1 last name, author 2 last name, and author 3 last name + page nr)
(Booth, Colomb, and Williams 190)
|The first author’s name listed is reversed – the last name comes before the first name. The names of the second and third authors are given in regular first and last name order. List the names in the same order as they appear on the title page.
Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.
(four or more authors)
|(only the first author and add the phrase et al [“and others”] + page nr]
(Barclay et al. 144-145)
|Same format as the in-text citation for the authors section
Barclay, Michael, et al. Have Not Been the Same: The CanRock Renaissance, 1985-95. Toronto: ECW, 2001. Print.
(Edited, Translated or Compiled)
|(Author 1 last name, author 2 last name + page nr)
(Greenspan and Rosenberg 77)
|When using an entire book that lists editors, translators or compilers on its title page use the appropriate abbreviation – ed. (if only one editor), eds. (if more than one editor is listed), trans., or comps.
Greenspan, Edward, and Marc Rosenberg, eds. Martin’s Annual Criminal Code: Student Edition 2010. Aurora: Canada Law Book, 2009. Print.
|Article or Chapter in an Edited Book||(Author last name + page nr)
|The editor is listed after the book title, with the abbreviation ‘Ed.’ (even if there is more than one editor still use ‘Ed.’). List the page numbers of the article or chapter after the year of publication.
Naremore, James. “Hitchcock at the Margins of Noir.” Alfred Hitchcock: Centenary Essays. Ed. Richard Allen and S. Ishii-Gonzales. London:BFI, 1999. 263-77. Print.
|Government Document||Government documents may have individual authors
|The government department may be the publisher and the place of publication may be the city of the department’s head office.
Fitzgerald, Robin. Fear of Crime and the Neighbourhood Context in Canadian Cities. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2008. Print.
Group as Author
(government agency, associations, corporations, etc.)
|Government documents may have an entire department as an author.
When citing a group author, the full form of the group’s name is written out in the text citation. It is often better, however, to include a long name in the text, so that the reader is not interrupted with an extended parenthetical reference (the first example below uses a long parenthetical citation).
Canada was the first nation to ratify the treaty (Canada. Dept. of Foreign
Affairs and International Trade 17).
According to a document released by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada was the first nation to ratify the treaty (17).
|Corporate publications (e.g. annual reports) are often published by the corporation itself. In these cases the corporation is listed as Author and Publisher. The place of publication is often the city of the corporation’s head office. When citing government documents without individual authors, state the name of the government first (e.g. Canada, United States), followed by the name of the agency.
Canada. Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Freedom
From Fear: Canada’s Foreign Policy for Human Security. Ottawa:
DFAIT, 2002. Print.
|Pamphlets||See book entry
If the pamphlet does not have an individual author, then list it using the title information.
|See book entry
If the pamphlet does not have an individual author, then list it using the title information.
|Encyclopedia Entry||(Bercuson 101)
|Bercuson, David Jay. “Canada.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, 2006. 93-106. Print.
“Existentialism.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998. 199-204. Print.
List the page numbers of the section after the year of publication.
(Castro and Huber 91)
|If an edition is given, specify it by number (2nd ed.), name (Rev. ed.), or year (2004 ed.).
Castro, Peter, and Michael E. Huber. Marine Biology. 4th ed. Boston:
McGraw-Hill, 2003. Print.
|Two or More Books by the Same Author||The title is included in the in text citation (in full or a shortened version) to distinguish the works. If the author’s name is already mentioned within the text, it can be omitted from the parenthetical reference.
(Barnet, Practical Guide 87)
(Barnet, Short Guide to Writing 17)
|The author’s name is only listed in the first entry in the Works Cited list. The author’s name in additional entries will be replaced by three hyphens and a period (—.). Works listed under the same name are alphabetized by title.
Barnet, Sylvan. The Practical Guide to Writing. Toronto: Longman, 2003. Print.
—. A Short Guide to Writing about Art. 4th ed. New York: Harper Collins College, 1993. Print.
|Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)||Author’s name. “Article Title.” Journal Name volume.issue (year): page-range. Medium.|
|Scholarly Journal Article||(Keary 614)||Keary, Anne. “Dancing with Strangers: Europeans and Australians at
First Contact.” Canadian Journal of History 41 (2006): 613-616. Print.
Most scholarly journals have continuous pagination throughout the issues in one year or volume. If the journal does not have continuous pagination, but begins each issue on page 1, then you will need to include the issue number as well as the volume number, separated by a period.
Murphy, Karen L., Roseanne DePasquale, and Erin McNamara. “Meaningful Connections: Using Technology in Primary Classrooms.” Young Children 58.6 (2003): 12-18. Print.
(“An Unlikely Champion”)
|For magazines published every week or every two weeks, the complete date (day, month, and year) should be provided in the citation. If the magazine is published monthly or every two months only the month and year needs to be provided. Do not provide volume and issue numbers even if they are listed. If there is no author, begin the entry with the title. Note that no page numbers are used in one of the examples above, as the entire article is being cited.
Geddes, John. “A Natural Remedy?” Maclean’s 4 June 2007: 20-22. Print.
“An Unlikely Champion of the Rule of Law.” Maclean’s 11 June 2007: 31. Print.
|Similar to magazine articles, provide the date of the publication (abbreviate months with the exception of May, June and July) and do not include volume and issue information, even if provided. For articles that are not printed on consecutive pages, only provide the first page number with a plus sign (e.g. C4+).
“Ignorance, Politics and the Way of Democracy.” Toronto Star 16 June
2007: A2. Print.
|Website – One Page or Section||Last name, First name. “Document title if available.” Title of the overall Website, Version or edition if available. Publisher or N.p. to designate no publisher, publication date or n.d. to indicate that no date was given. Web. Date of access.|
|Website – One Page or Section||(“Works of Joyce Wieland”)
|“Works of Joyce Wieland.” Celebrating Women’s Achievements: Women Artists in Canada. National Library of Canada, 2000. Web. 29 Mar. 2009.
Wong, Jessica. “Celebrating the Kid Inside.” CBC News. Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation. 30 July 2004. Web. 20 Aug. 2008.
If you need to include a URL (the item is difficult to locate) – place it after the date in angle brackets (<>), followed by a period
Wong, Jessica. “Celebrating the Kid Inside.” CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 30 July 2004. Web. 20 Aug. 2008. <http://www.cbc.ca/arts/ features/rejuvenile>.
|Entire Website||(Canadian Museum of Civilization)||Title of the overall Website, Version or edition if available. Publisher or N.p. to designate no publisher, publication date or n.d. if no date was given. Web. Date of access.
Canadian Museum of Civilization. Canadian Museum of Civilization
Corporation, 2007. Web. 19 June 2008.
Most websites will not have page numbers; you may omit the page number in your citation, if none are given in the original document. In this instance, using the author’s name or website in the text is preferable to using a parenthetical citation.
|Online Journal||(Stenson)||Stenson, Kevin. “Governing the Local: Sovereignty, Social Governance
and Community Safety.” Social Work & Society 6:2 (2008): n. pag.
Web. 22 Mar. 2009.
The item may have regular pagination (as in a PDF format), may have the starting page with the number of pages, or may not provide paging at all. If paragraph numbers are used in the document, use the abbreviation par. or pars. (e.g. Lederberg, pars. 10-12). If there is no pagination given, use ‘n. pag.’ to indicate this, as in the Stenson example above.
|Journal Article from a Library Index or Database
(e.g. Proquest’s CBCA Reference, EBSCOhost’s Academic Search Premier)
|(Keary 614)||Keary, Anne. “Dancing with Strangers: Europeans and Australians at
First Contact.” Canadian Journal of History 41 (2006): 613-616.
Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 May 2009.
|Electronic Book from a Library Subscription Service||(Troost and Greenfield 113)||Troost, Linda, and Sayre N. Greenfield, eds. Jane Austen in Hollywood. 2nd ed. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2001. NetLibrary.
Web. 18 May 2009.
|Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries||if there is no author available, use the title of the entry (shortened if it is a long title).
B. F. Skinner was very influential in the field of psychological behavioralism (Graham).
Global warming is an increase in temperature due to pollution (“Global Warming”).
Graham, George. “Behaviorism.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. E. N. Zalta. Stanford: Stanford University, 2007. Web. 12 June 2010.
no date, author or editor information provided. If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title.
“Global Warming.” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online, 2010. Web. 12 June 2010.
|Online Document (such as a Government Document)||(Fitzgerald 33)||Fitzgerald, Robin. Fear of Crime and the Neighbourhood Context in Canadian Cities. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2008. Web. 4 May 2009.|
|Online Image||Artist or Creator. “Description or Title of the Image.” Date the image was created. Online Image. Database Name or Title of the Site. Date of Download. <url>.|
|Statistical Information and Data||When citing a statistical table, graph, figure or chart, provide the author and the full name of the table, graph, figure or chart, followed by the appropriate descriptor Table, Chart, Figure, Graph. Provide the title of the database if one was used (E-STAT, DLI, etc.) in italics, followed by the medium and access date.
2001 Census table extracted using E-STAT
Statistics Canada. 2001 School Attendance, Education, Field of Study, Highest Level of Schooling and Earnings, 2001, Manitoba Census Subdivisions. Table. E-STAT. Web. 16 August 2005.
CANSIM data table extracted using E-STAT
Statistics Canada. Table 326-0001 Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2001 Basket Content, Monthly. Table. E-STAT. Web. 19 August 2005.
Tables, graphs, figures or charts from the Statistics Canada website in HTML or PDF
Statistics Canada. Gross Domestic Product, Income-based. Table. Web. 19 August 2005.
Beyond 20/20 Table from DLI (e.g. Justice Data)
Statistics Canada. Table 251-0007 – Adult correctional services, operating expenditures for provincial, territorial and federal programs, annual. Table. DLI. Web. 10 November 2008.
|Other Common Resources|
There will generally be no page number to refer the reader to. You may wish to include the source as part of your sentence rather than place it in brackets.
|Robinson, Martha. “Vacation Plans.” Message to Daniel J. Cahill.
22 Mar. 2008. E-mail.
Harner, James L. Message to the author. 12 Feb. 2009. E-mail.
(that you conducted)
There will generally be no page number to refer the reader to. You may wish to include the interviewee’s name as part of your sentence rather than place it in brackets. In the citation, include the interviewee’s name, type of interview (personal, telephone, etc) and the date.
|Nesbit, Louise. Personal Interview. 17 July 2008.|
|Class Lectures and PowerPoint Notes||for ease of reading, you may wish to include the lecture information in the body of your essay, indicating date, course and the professor’s name, as in the in-text example below.
In a lecture on 15 May 2008, in a course on effective research, Dr. Robert Smith stated, “Grammar is an essential part of communication”.
Smith, Robert. “Research Assignment Instructions.” ABC Institution.
Oshawa. 15 May 2008. Lecture.
|Quoting a Quote (Citing an Indirect or Secondary Source)||Note: the abbreviation for “quoted” is “qtd”.
As the three witches in Macbeth appropriately chant “Fair is foul,
and foul is fair” (qtd. in Runciman 74).
|entry for the Runciman work|